The allies occupied the region until the end of World War II. The mandate was ended by the declaration of the mandatory power, and of the new states themselves, of their independence, followed by a process of piecemeal unconditional recognition by other powers, culminating in formal admission to the United Nations. The Maronite community in particular managed to maintain a large degree of autonomy despite the succession of rulers over Lebanon and Syria. While some irregular forces crossed the border and carried out minor skirmishes against Israel, it was without the support of the Lebanese government, and Lebanese troops did not officially invade. As such the Franks saw them as Roman Catholic brethren. Elections were held in and on 8 November the new Lebanese government unilaterally abolished the mandate.
Elections were held in and on 8 November the new Lebanese government unilaterally abolished the mandate. The fertile coastal plain is formed of marine sediments and river deposited alluvium alternating with sandy bays and rocky beaches. The Baalbek and Beqaa Valley and Jabal Amel was ruled intermittently by various Shia feudal families, especially the Al Ali Alsagheer in Jabal Amel that remained in power until when Ottomans took direct ruling of the region. In September , the Parliament failed to elect a successor to President Gemayel as a result of differences between the Christians, Muslims, and Syrians. On 26 November General Georges Catroux announced that Lebanon would become independent under the authority of the Free French government. As such the Franks saw them as Roman Catholic brethren. In the face of international pressure, the French released the government officials on 22 November November Main article: On 9 May , Hezbollah and Amal forces, sparked by a government declaration that Hezbollah 's communications network was illegal, seized western Beirut ,  leading to the conflict in Lebanon. Unlike most other Christian communities in the Eastern Mediterranean , who swore allegiance to Constantinople or other local patriarchs, the Maronites proclaimed allegiance to the Pope in Rome. Under pressure from the West, Syria began withdrawing,  and by 26 April all Syrian soldiers had returned to Syria. On 1 September , France reestablished Greater Lebanon after the Moutasarrifiya rule removed several regions belonging to the Principality of Lebanon and gave them to Syria. Youssef Bey Karam , a Lebanese nationalist played an influential role in Lebanon's independence during this era. The narrow and discontinuous coastal plain stretches from the Syrian border in the north where it widens to form the Akkar plain to Ras al-Naqoura at the border with Israel in the south. The Beqaa valley sits between the Lebanon mountains in the west and the Anti-Lebanon range in the east; it's a part of the Great Rift Valley system. While some irregular forces crossed the border and carried out minor skirmishes against Israel, it was without the support of the Lebanese government, and Lebanese troops did not officially invade. Though Islam and the Arabic language were officially dominant under this new regime, the general populace nonetheless only gradually converted from Christianity and the Syriac language. The monks who followed Maron spread his teachings among Lebanese in the region. A multinational force of American, French and Italian contingents joined in by a British contingent were deployed in Beirut after the Israeli siege of the city , to supervise the evacuation of the PLO. Under political pressure from both inside and outside Lebanon, de Gaulle recognized the independence of Lebanon. The Maronite community in particular managed to maintain a large degree of autonomy despite the succession of rulers over Lebanon and Syria. Following the fall of Roman Anatolia to the Muslim Turks, the Byzantines put out a call to the Pope in Rome for assistance in the 11th century. Following the end of World War II in Europe the French mandate may be said to have been terminated without any formal action on the part of the League of Nations or its successor the United Nations. Beirut's southern suburb was heavily damaged by Israeli airstrikes. It is estimated that , people were killed and another , wounded. With the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire , Greater Lebanon fell under French mandate in , and gained independence under president Bechara El Khoury in The result was a series of wars known as the Crusades launched by the Franks in Western Europe to reclaim the former Byzantine Christian territories in the Eastern Mediterranean, especially Syria and Palestine the Levant.
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