Among many determinants of obesity, frequency of meals, snacking, and eating-out have attracted research and practical interests because of their direct applicability to everyday life. Department of Health and Human Services. Ask for steamed vegetables instead of fries. If you do eat bread before your meal, choose melba toast or whole-grain rolls without butter or margarine. Acculturated Korean Americans were either born in the U.
Kant reported that energy intake was positively associated with meal frequency in the National Health and Nutrition Examination and Survey I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. Sample Adult 17 years old or older Korean Americans were randomly sampled from U. The majority of them were working, while men were more likely working than women. The sample was stratified by four variables: You will consume less dressing if you just get a taste of it on each mouthful of salad rather than pouring it over the salad. The largest, traditional group was situated on the opposite end from the acculturated group. Acculturation, meal-regularity, eating-out, obesity, Korean Americans Introduction Obesity is a growing problem in the United States Flegal et al. Non-respondents received reminder postcards followed by second and third mailings. Use a squeeze of lemon instead of dressing on salads. Since current international migration flows from undeveloped or developing countries to developed countries, immigrants and their children may be in different stages of showing changes from industrialization and modernization. The bicultural group appeared to be in between the acculturated and the traditional group, however, it was notable that the bicultural group had a wider social network and social participation with American mainstream than the acculturated group. After controlling for age, sex, income, education, and working status, higher acculturation was related to greater regularity of eating-out, but not meal regularity. If you are trying a new restaurant, take time to study the menu so you can make the best choices. Fabry and co-workers reported that eating small frequent meals nibbling was strongly associated with lower body weight than eating large few meals gorging Fabry et al. Respondents were grouped by BMI into four groups: High-fat, high-sugar and high-energy foods are often associated with snacking, possibly resulting in consuming "empty calories Drummond et al. Eating-out behaviors was determined by asking how often respondents eat out or take out from restaurants: However, no significant relationships between frequency of meals and eating-out and overweight status were present. Ask the server about ingredients or preparation methods for the dishes you're not familiar with. If and how frequent eating-out is related to body weight, however, has not been fully studied. They were more likely to have limited English proficiency and felt most comfortable with Korean culture and environments. This study did not find significant relationships of meal regularity and eating-out with body weight, however, given the positive relationship between acculturation and eating-out among the subjects and the well-established relationship between eating-out and obesity, nutrition education about skipping meals and eating-for Korean Americans may be useful to prevent such relationships from developing. Snacking has been discussed in relation to obesity in similar ways to meal frequency has. Logistic regression proportional odds model was applied to simultaneously investigate the relationships of all study variables in multi-variable models. Generally, they were most comfortable with American society compared to the other acculturation groups. Only about a third reported that they ate three meals a day everyday Table 2. Measures There are no widely accepted acculturation scales for Korean Americans.
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