Trend data on adolescents are available only for seven of these 11 countries, and only for the period They don't have any idea of the ramifications. Effective programs incorporated behavioral goals, teaching methods, and materials that were appropriate to the age, sexual experience, and culture of the students. Thus, many adolescents began having sexual intercourse with multiple sexual partners prior to marriage, and this, of course, facilitated STD and HIV transmission. Bozon M and Kontula O, , op. But it's not about making a values judgment, we just want to help students make wise decisions.
Finally, of 10 studies that measured impact on number of sexual partners, three programs reduced the number of partners, seven had no impact, and none increased the number of sexual partners. Abstinence Programs Abstinence programs focus upon the importance of abstinence from sexual intercourse, typically abstinence until marriage. As a result, reported statistics on chlamydia are very sensitive to how aggressive countries are in screening and testing. A large number of forces encourage youth to engage in sexual activity, including unprotected sexual activity eg, changing hormones, emotional and physical needs and desires, desires to be an adult and to take risks, ambivalence about becoming pregnant or producing a pregnancy, peer pressures, norms promoting sexual risk-taking, and the omnipresent inaccurate portrayal of sex in the media. Completeness of reporting is low in some of these countries, so the true incidence of gonorrhea is somewhat higher than reported rates. Hillis S et al. In addition to variations in the completeness of reporting of diagnosed STD cases, the proportion of infected people who are actually identified as having an STD also varies. The research on which this article is based was supported by a grant from The Henry J. When these five curricula and other curricula having significant positive behavioral outcomes are compared with curricula without such positive behavioral results, the effective curricula share 10 characteristics, which may be linked to their success, whereas the ineffective curricula lack one or more of these characteristics. Third, the differences in study results could be due, in part, to the addition of other programmatic components eg, educational components and the availability of small group discussions or one-on-one counseling in three of the studies. In general, it requires considerable time and multiple activities to change the most important antecedents of sexual risk-taking and to thereby have a real influence on behavior. In young people, for example, condom use declines with age, and is higher among African-Americans than European-Americans. Reported chlamydia incidence increased more steeply—or declined more slowly—among adolescents than in the general population, except in Canada. But because they are having sex, it pushes up the figures. Finally, programs should address drug use and needle sharing. Consequently, programs have been developed to increase this communication and thereby to decrease adolescent sexual risk-taking behavior. Less encouraging are the results from three studies of similar programs in Seattle and Boston. Although far from perfect, these estimates give a rough picture of the level of incidence by age and sex in France. These theories help to specify which particular antecedents the interventions should strive to change eg, the beliefs, attitudes, norms, confidence, and skills related to sexual behavior to bring about voluntary change in sexual or contraceptive behavior. In particular, parent programs may be more effective if they focus on other ways in which parents affect the sexual behavior of their children eg, through appropriate supervision and modeling responsible sexual behavior. Concerns about the problem have prompted some schools to hold special information nights for parents, or to engage extra health services to combat the problem. However, several contributing factors have been put forward: The proportion married may also affect STD risk: Studies of these programs strongly support the conclusion that sexuality and HIV education curricula do not increase sexual intercourse, either by reducing the age at first intercourse, increasing the frequency of intercourse, or increasing the number of sexual partners. Clearly, all other things being equal, the more active case-finding policies are and the more widespread STD screening is, the larger the fraction of STD cases that will be identified and reported. In combination, these studies consistently demonstrate that comprehensive community programs do not increase sexual behavior, even when they focus primarily on condom use.
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